#PlanetVsPlastic

http://makse.com/?kremel=speed-dating-events-lansing&f16=fa Plastic pollution poses even greater impacts on the environment because of its widespread usage and its durability component. The global plastic consumption throughout the globe was approximated at 260 million tons in 2008, and it was predicted to be more than 300 tons in 2015 – according to the Global Industry Analysts. These plastics wind up negatively affecting wildlife habitat, wildlife, and humans by affecting lands, oceans, and waterways.

go site Wildlife and marine creatures at times confuse plastics wastes for food, affecting them when ingested or may be exposed to the toxic chemicals present in the plastics that can cause biological upsets. Human biological functions are also affected by the plastic’s toxic chemicals. Besides, plastic wastes lead to other forms of environmental pollution.

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http://careermastery.net.au/?pero=tastylia-online-without-prescription%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C%5C Plastic wastes have been mistaken for food by numerous animals, mainly marine wildlife. Large quantities of plastics have been found in the stomachs of many dead animals. When the plastics are ingested, they upset or fill up the digestive systems of the animals thus contributing to their death due to blockage or starvation.

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fincar cost Marine animals can also be trapped in plastic waste where they are exposed to predators or starve to death. The plastics may also contain toxic chemicals which can harm the animal’s vital organs or biological functions. Cumulatively, plastic wastes have profoundly affected animals in aquatic, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems.

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follow url Plastics are made up of a variety of toxic chemicals. As such, its uses and exposure are associated with a number of human health concerns. Chemicals leached from the plastics contain compounds like polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates. These chemicals have been established to upset the endocrine system and thyroid hormones and can be very destructive to women of reproductive age and young children.

follow link Plastics wastes have resulted in the destruction and decline in quality of the earth’s land surfaces in term of use, landscape and ability to support life forms. Mainly, it’s because plastics leach hazardous chemicals on land, forms breeding grounds for diseases, and litters available space thereby reducing the productive land areas. The bulk of plastics also end up in the landfills and since they take years to breakdown they heap up causing significant health implications to plants, people, and animals within the surrounding.

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dating schizoid personality disorder Often, plastics are burned in the open air. This leads to air pollution because poisonous chemicals are released into the atmosphere during combustion. Plus, when animals or humans inhale the polluted air it can affect their general well-being and cause respiratory disorders.

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Whenever plastics are dumped in landfills, the hazardous chemicals present in them seep underground when it rains. The leaching chemicals and toxic elements infiltrate into the aquifers and water table, indirectly affecting groundwater quality. Eventually, it thwarts the efforts of water conservation around the world since it endangers the sustainability of the waters.

Many lakes and oceans have reported alarming cases of plastic debris floating on water surfaces, affecting a great number of aquatic creatures. It leads to dreadful consequences to marine creatures that swallow the toxic chemicals. Besides, the hazardous plastic chemicals contaminate water and reduce its quality. Estimations reveal the existence of billions of tons of plastics in swirling convergences constituting about 40% of the globe’s oceanic surfaces.

In 2014, UN report estimated the annual impact of plastic pollution on oceans at US$ 13 billion. Other numerous water surfaces across the globe have thousands of tons of floating plastic debris and are experiencing similar economic impacts.

Planktons, mollusks, worms, fishes, insects, and amphibians are all affected by plastic pollution. These organisms at one point or another take-up or swallow the toxic chemicals from the plastics. When the smaller animals are intoxicated by ingesting plastic, they are passed on to the larger animals disrupting the interrelated connections within the food chain.

Furthermore, the process climbs even higher in the food chain, and humans eat the fish or seafood that has been contaminated by the plastic toxic chemicals. Studies determine that the chemicals affect the biological and reproduction process resulting in reduced numbers of offspring thus disrupting the food chains.

Scattered plastics at the beaches or on dumpsites/towers/traffic lights/poles within cities usually portray a very bad picture of the respective regions and depict environmental insensitivity. Winds may also carry the plastics to other areas, increasing plastic littering. As a result, tourism to such areas is affected leading to loss of tourism revenue.

Furthermore, millions of money are spent annually to clean regions littered or affected by plastic pollution. Hundreds of endangered marine creatures such as the sea turtles are lost on a yearly basis for having consumed pieces of plastic. Humans are as well extensively affected by the health implications of plastic pollution whereas plants continue to decline due to plastic chemical intoxication.

International Literature’s Day

Today is International Literature’s Day and this like a Christmas of Christians and Diwali of Hindus for us, people related to the Literature Community. I celebrate this day every year in my own way but this year I thought I need to celebrate in a different way. This year I want to express my gratitude to all the people who made some difference in my life related to Literature. If I need to start from my Early Days.

My father, he is Lecturer of English Language & Literature and from my early childhood days I have a lot of influence from his side. There were always a lot of books in our home from early days and whenever I get the book to read in my growing years those were never the comics, they were always the Literature related book. So in a way my affection to the Literature Community started from my childhood days. I still remember the day when my dad started doing his Masters in English and the books that he was reading for the semester end exams were William Shakespeare’s. During my school days, when I came back from the school I always take sometime reading those books and have a wonderful time with them. I really fell in deep love with them.

This love with the literature just increased day by day and I never looked back from then. In my school days my first English Teacher was Urmil Mahendru. She was way too old in comparison to other teacher but her way of teaching was like filling us[the students] with the light of the literature and that was really great.

Whenever I have something to think about and didn’t get answers, I never found anything rather than the literature & the books. Whenever I was sad or I’m feeling sad, I always look for the poetry books and those are the best and one of the kind. In the midst of the book I always felt safe and full of life. There are so much emotions associated with the books. They are not just the books but they are like a person filled with life in them and not only they have lights but they actually shower the lights on others.

This literature world is filled with a lot of amazing authors and so many readers. All of them make this literature world worth that is invaluable. On this day of International Literature’s Day I just wanna wish each and every one a very happy day and all the books in the world and also the upcoming books in the future.

Read them, enjoy them and live them. If you are not a reader! Hell what are you waiting for, just go to a library or a book shop and get your first book, trust me its going to change your life forever!!!

What Kindness Can Do?

When there is problem and there are reasons where we have choice that either kindness to be chosen or the hatred, most of the people will go for choosing hatred because they believe it’s the best thing that we can do at the time. There were reasons people believe that they can do and achieve more with a little hate and they can reach more and more close to the target but it’s not! If we wanna achieve our goals and make a place in the world only one thing can be of assistant and that’s Kindness. Being kind is not an option, with kindness you will be loved by others.

There is a reason we say that what will be our legacy when we leave this world! It’s in itself is very complicated statement. Legacy, actually what is legacy of a person? I will say only this for me only legacy is if the person is remembered for good after even his death. There are a lot of people who left there legacy good or bad which this world see in front of them. Like Nelson Mandela, what he did and the path of sacrifice and kindness he shown everybody is just something else and something big. Whereas, on the other hand we can see the legacy of Osama Bin Laden. What he left as a legacy is only fear death & destruction. Nothing else.

We, the current generation need to leave a legacy for the world which is going to make future better for the coming generation, our kids and our grand kids. For that, we need to make the environment more lovingly and full of kindness, that is the goal we all should need to do and work on. And not only the human beings but also the other living beings like animals, not destroying there habitats and not cutting down trees, but to support them more.

When we show kindness or do an act of kindness, it never dies there but it will come back to you, definitely. Not importantly from the same person or in the same way but there are a lot of ways to accomplish that.

So go ahead, and do an act of kindness now!

And make the world a better place.

#Love

There is nothing better in the world than #love and the #kindness. What is #love and #kindness? Do we show enough #love and #kindness to everybody in the world, we can? What is #love? There is a lot of kind of #love we see around us all the time. #love is not only that we see between a girlfriend and boyfriend or husband and wife. There are more.

Like, when you are getting late to reach home and your mom call you to check why you are getting late and to know if you’re okay, that’s #love. When you’re fighting with your sister on a stupid thing and then either you give that thing to her or she give that think back to you, that’s #love. When your grandmother says that you’re the best gift she ever received in her life, that’s the #love. These all are some of the different kind of #love. But there are so many things that actually come with it like care, tension! When we care for somebody it’s also a kind of #love we actually have for someone or somebody.

We should spread #love as much as we can in all the living creature and the plant kingdom too. They are also as much alive as we are. If we show our #love to them, they will prosper in a healthy and beautiful way but if we just ignore them or hate them, they will soon get be dead. #Love is important to every little or big creature on this planet. Even the nature also shows its affection towards us. It’s due to the Nature’s affection that we are living and breathing here. We have seen that how much ferocious Nature can be. All the Earthquakes that shook the earth, the volcanoes spitting that molten Lava out, all the twisters, hurricanes, tornadoes, avalanches all are a kind of anger that Nature has shown. But every morning as the sunlight touches the Earth’s surface and it sprung the liveliness in the creatures of the Earth that is the #love of the nature.

We can do one thing that will be very good for all of us, with #Love we can just make sure that we are spreading a message that people of Earth have not forgotten the #love that is being given to us by the Mother Nature.

Respect it!!!

Love it!!! And spread Love!!!

Mother’s Love Effects — Scientific Way

Nurturing a child early in life may help him or her develop a larger hippocampus, the brain region important for learning, memory and stress responses, a new study shows.

Previous animal research showed that early maternal support has a positive effect on a young rat’s hippocampal growth, production of brain cells and ability to deal with stress. Studies in human children, on the other hand, found a connection between early social experiences and the volume of the amygdala, which helps regulate the processing and memory of emotional reactions. Numerous studies also have found that children raised in a nurturing environment typically do better in school and are more emotionally developed than their non-nurtured peers.

Brain images have now revealed that a mother’s love physically affects the volume of her child’s hippocampus. In the study, children of nurturing mothers had hippocampal volumes 10 percent larger than children whose mothers were not as nurturing. Research has suggested a link between a larger hippocampus and better memory.

“We can now say with confidence that the psychosocial environment has a material impact on the way the human brain develops,” a lead researcher. “It puts a very strong wind behind the sail of the idea that early nurturing of children positively affects their development.”

The researchers placed mother and child in a room along with an attractively wrapped gift and a survey that the mother had to fill out. The children were told they could not open the present until five minutes had passed — basically until their mothers had finished the survey. A group of psychiatrists, who knew nothing about the children’s health or the parents’ temperaments, rated the amount of support the mothers gave to their children.

A mother who was very supportive, for example, would console her child, explaining that the child had only a few more minutes to wait and that she understands the situation was frustrating. “The task recapitulates what everyday life is like.”

Now, four years later, the researchers gave MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans to 92 children who underwent the waiting task. Compared with non-depressed children with high maternal support, non-depressed children with low support had 9.2 percent smaller hippocampal volumes, while depressed children with high and low support had 6.0 and 10.6 percent smaller volumes, respectively.

Though 95 percent of the parents in the study were the children’s biological mothers, the researchers say that the effects of nurturing on the brain are likely to be the same for any primary caregiver.

 

** Some of the content is been taken from a study’s result printed in a medical journal **

Importance of Kindness

Kindness is defined as the quality of being friendly, generous, and considerate. Affection, gentleness, warmth, concern, and care are words that are associated with kindness. While kindness has a connotation of meaning someone is naive or weak, that is not the case. Being kind often requires courage and strength. Kindness is an interpersonal skill.

You’ve heard about survival of the fittest and Darwin. Survival of the fittest is usually associated with selfishness, meaning that to survive (a basic instinct) means to look out for yourself. But Darwin, who studied human evolution, actually didn’t see mankind as being biologically competitive and self-interested. Darwin believed that we are a profoundly social and caring species. He argued that sympathy and caring for others is instinctual.

Current research supports this idea. Science has now shown that devoting resources to others, rather than having more and more for yourself, brings about lasting well-being. Kindness has been found by researchers to be the most important predictor of satisfaction and stability in a marriage. Many colleges, including Harvard, are now emphasizing kindness on applications for admission.

There are different ways to practice kindness. One way to be kind is to open your eyes and be active when you see people in need. Do you notice when people could use a helping hand? A sense of community is created when people are kind to those who need help.

Opening your eyes means noticing when others are suffering. A kind word, a smile, opening a door, or helping carry a heavy load can all be acts of kindness. Celebrating someone you love, giving honest compliments, sending an email thanking someone, telling someone how s/he is special to you, helping an elderly neighbor with yard work or food, taking a photo of someone and sending it to the person, sharing homemade food, refusing to gossip, and donating old clothing and things you don’t need are all ideas about how to practice kindness.

Kindness is a willingness to full-heartedly celebrate someone else’s successes. Gottman’s work shows that your response to someone’s successes may determine more about your relationship than how you respond when times are difficult. Do you minimize the success, not pay attention to it, or bring up all the problems with the success? Kindness is to be openly happy for the other person.

Kindness is also about telling the truth in a gentle way when doing so is helpful to the other person. Receiving accurate feedback in a loving and caring way is an important part of a trusted relationship. The courage to give and receive truthful feedback is a key component of growth and flexible thinking.

Kindness includes being kind to yourself. Do you treat yourself kindly? Do you speak gently and kindly to yourself and take good care of yourself?

There are many ways to be kind and many opportunities to practice. Perhaps kindness is a value that could add more satisfaction to and strengthen your relationships.

 

#MakeWorldABetterPlace

Starry Night — Vincent van Gogh

It is a standard oil painting on canvas and depicts a cityscape underneath a starry night sky, possibly from the view of a window. It is one of the most immediately recognizable paintings in Western art, and one of van Gogh’s most famous and important works. Ironically, van Gogh himself was not satisfied with The Starry Night and considered the work to be “a failure,” and declined to send the painting to his brother later on. He believed the painting to be too abstract, with the notable stars in the painting being too large and exaggerated for his taste.

In 1888, van Gogh suffered a kind of nervous breakdown as a result of a conflict with a friend of his and his brother. In a fit, he mutilated his ear and reportedly sent the severed ear to a prostitute that he regularly tended to visit. He nearly bled to death from the ordeal, and barely survived after being taken to the hospital by the police. After this episode, he checked himself into the local insane asylum in Saint Paul-de-Mausole, where he spent roughly a year. There, he had two rooms, one for sleeping, and one to serve as a studio for his paintings. The isolation inflicted upon him by his stay limited the range of subjects, and during this time a lot of his works were depictions of mundane subjects and of nature and the surrounding views from his window. The Starry Night is one such painting, which is meant to depict the view out of his asylum window before sunrise.

In the painting, the viewer can see a swirling dark blue sky in the typical style of van Gogh’s works. Some art critics interpret these swirls as visual depictions of wind blowing through the night. There are many stars, exaggerated in their brightness, and a big crescent moon in the right-hand corner among what appears to be flowing clouds or fog. In the foreground, a cypress tree—a possible symbol of death, according to some critics—reaches up into the night, and the brightest star in the image—which is probably no star at all, but actually the planet Venus—sits just to the right of it. In the background, a village can clearly be seen, with a few windows in some houses lit up from the inside. A church with a tall steeple is visible among the houses and serves as something of a focal point. According to research, this village was not literally visible from van Gogh’s asylum window and was merely a stylistic choice which he added. Further, into the background of the painting, there are a series of rolling hills and forest thickets as the image moves towards a more natural setting. Beyond the hills, nothing is visible, and the horizon appears to be shrouded in clouds. It is the only night scene that van Gogh painted during his stay in the Saint Paul-de-Mausole asylum.

Sources: Various Books. [In my words].

Step Towards Mother Nature

“The sail plan we’re on is not sustainable.” These are the words Nainoa Thompson, navigator of the Hawaiian voyaging canoe Hōkūleʻa, used to explain why that canoe was embarking on its current voyage around the world: the “sail plan” of modernity is destroying our ability to live on this Earth, and the time to act is now. As a microcosm of the Earth, the voyaging canoe is a perfect model and metaphor for how to live on this planet. There is even a Hawaiian proverb, “The canoe is an island, the island is a canoe.” The same principles apply in both cases, and for the Earth as a whole: we are limited to one vessel, with nowhere else to go. What we have is all we have. How do we make it sustainable?

The navigator uses both the stars in front and the stars behind to set his course. If we are to understand where we are going, we must also look at where we have come from, in order to understand the sail plan we are on. How did we get to where we are now? And how do we change course?

In the past, all our ancestors used knowledge and wisdom derived over generations, to understand how to live in specific environments using various technological, social and cultural means. They understood their dependency on the Earth and its inhabitants, and they looked to ensure abundance for the future.

The Protestant Reformation, the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution changed the way the Western world understood itself and its relationship to the Earth. At the outset of the Scientific Revolution, it was important to separate science and intellectual thought from the ideological constraints of the Church. But from there, a new tradition of reason and rationality took hold. One might presume that being “rational” is a good thing. Unfortunately, the specific kind of rationality—which I call rationality with small “r”—is the root of our problem.

“The authentic human self became defined not as part of the natural, or physical or biological realm…but sharply divided from those realms.”

The new intellectual model held that reason needed to be free from all “corrupting” influences—not just political and economic forces, but also emotions, imagination and human values. Within that framework, all forms of philosophy and spiritual inquiry, as well as the arts and literature, were deemed “unscientific.” Only that which could be validated empirically or proven mathematically fell into the realm of science and reason.

That served an important purpose at the time, but should have been a stepping stone rather than an end point in the acceptable methods of pursuing knowledge. The elevation of this form of “rationality” had enormous impacts on the split between science, culture and nature that can be directly linked to our current environmental crises.

As environmental philosopher Val Plumwood put it, reason was taken as characterizing the authentically human, creating the “supposedly sharp separation, cleavage, or discontinuity between all humans and the nonhuman world, and the similar cleavage within the human self.” The authentic human self-became defined not as part of the natural, or physical or biological realm (or at best, as a special and distinct part) but sharply divided from those realms. Nature is not only alien and oppositional to humanity, but usually hostile and inferior.

The result is what environmental scholar Carolyn Merchant called “The Death of Nature,” and sociologists such as Max Weber and Theodor Adorno called the “disenchantment of the world.” It is a reductionism that poses a “mindless meaningless materialist universe opens to endless unrestricted manipulation and appropriation: nature is the suppressed slave collaborator—a mere resource, or transparent enabler of projects,” wrote Plumwood in 2009. As the Industrial Revolution picked up steam in the late 18th-century, it was essential that nature be understood not as animate, but raw materials for mass production.

“Cultures everywhere have sustained themselves by developing systematic knowledge of planting, hunting, weather and climate…”

This “rationality” also brought in the model of Homo economicus: economic man. Rather than focus on the community, the economic man seeks to do whatever he can to maximize his own personal benefit. This is called “economic rationalism,” and is the foundation of most modern economic theory. It’s best exemplified by Garrett Hardin’s Tragedy of the Commons, which we are indeed facing now.

Of course, Europeans never had the sole claim to systematic knowledge. Cultures everywhere have sustained themselves by developing systematic knowledge of planting, hunting, weather and climate, environmental conditions, medicine and health care, navigation and engineering—the list is extensive. So why are these not “science”? The short answer is, because the discourse of rationality tells us they are not—because they do not come from the European tradition of reason. It is still the legacy of colonialism that traditional lifeways, worldviews and understandings are seen as backwards and irrational, if not heathen. This thinking still colors our worldview and our acceptance of what is knowledge and what is not.

But there is also, coming from the Enlightenment, the parallel trajectory of the rationalization of human rights: questioning why one man should have power over another, rejecting the Divine right of kings in favor of democracy, leading to the rejection of slavery and colonialism, and producing the ever-broadening discourse of civil rights. The progression of human rights has been a crucial and outstanding part of the evolution of humanity. Just as rationality was needed to break free from the intellectual tyranny of the church, human rights are needed to end other forms of tyranny.

But it also brought its own problems that are directly relevant to the climate crisis today. Human rights strengthened the modern focus on the individual. Each of us has inalienable rights. We have no inalienable responsibilities. The linking of “rights” with “profitability” echoes profoundly in our society today: it is perceived by some, perhaps by many Americans, that we have a right to make as much money as possible, and that no laws or regulations should stand in the way.

“All of our ancestors would have found it horrific if they could see us now. As it ignores that on which our very survival is based, it is actually not rational at all.”

Modern culture as we know it really emerged in the United States shortly after the turn of the 20th-century. As industrialization moved into full swing, and people increasingly moved from rural to urban areas, the cultural transformation we now call “modernization” began to take place. Writers such as Virginia Woolf and others noted in the early 1900s that human character had changed. “The rise of mass production and high consumption began to transform the life of the middle class itself,” wrote the preeminent Harvard sociologist Daniel Bell, with the Protestant ethic being replaced by what he called a “materialistic hedonism.”

This new culture was distinct in that it was not connected to traditional family or community values, or to religion in any conventional sense, or even to democracy. As historian William Leach puts it, “The cardinal features of this culture were acquisition and consumption as the means of achieving happiness; the cult of the new; the democratization of desire; and money value as the predominant measure of all value in society.”

Nonetheless, this new culture continued the stance of its Western antecedents by equating itself with Civilization, implying that anything else is uncivilized. With the end of World War II, this culture was spread around the globe in the form of “development,” a scheme overtly aimed at raising standards of living in poorer countries, and succeeding in some significant ways. But—either incidentally or covertly, as you care to believe—linking the rest of the world into a market economy that keeps accelerating the rapacious exploitation of the natural world.

This has been an incredibly fast, incredibly radical, and incredibly destructive transformation. What is clear is that the worldview that is commonly accepted as “rational” today is actually the result of specific historical, cultural and economic forces, not a natural product of intellectual inquiry.

In fact, this worldview is not “rational” at all. Environmental activist Val Plumwood argues that the human-centeredness of this so-called rational thinking “is not in the interests of either humans or non-humans, that it is even dangerous and irrational.” It disenables us from understanding “our embeddedness in and dependency on nature,” distorting “our perceptions and enframings in ways that make us insensitive to limits, dependencies and interconnections of a non-human kind.” We have become unable to “see ourselves as part of ecosystems and understand how nature supports our lives…. This failure” she states, “lies behind many environmental catastrophes….”

It has fostered an ideology of environmental exploitation that was hitherto unheard of and even anathema to most peoples on Earth. All of our ancestors would have found it horrific if they could see us now. As it ignores that on which our very survival is based, it is actually not rational at all. Dan Wildcat, author of the book Red Alert! Saving the Planet with Indigenous Knowledge, calls it the path of “self termination.”

“Real rationality takes a careful look at the science of how we are living and what’s going on with our planet.”

I want to propose Rationality with a Capital R. This form of rationality reclaims the knowledge, insights and wisdom which were thrown out in the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution. Because we know we can’t wear those blinders any more.

Rationality does not accept infinitely expanding consumption based on a belief that when things run out, we’ll figure something out. That’s a castle made of sand, or as Wildcat, calls it this “laying a destructive foundation.” Rationality does not involve polluting our own nest so we can keep costs down in the short term. And Rationality does not involve discounting human values and experience as “unscientific” and therefore outside the realm of data worth careful consideration. This is ideology, not Rationality.

Real rationality takes a careful look at the science of how we are living and what’s going on with our planet. It looks holistically at both at our world and at ourselves and our experience of the world. It asks questions about how our values reflect our interconnection with and dependency on other beings. It seeks not just detached rationality, but transcendent meaning. And it informs our cultural practices accordingly.

All of this is to say: Culture is the cause of climate change—including the culture of Science. If we want to do something about climate change, we need to tackle it from the angle of Culture—using Science. And here is where the Hōkūleʻa voyage comes into play.

In the traditional cultures of the world, wisdom developed from careful observation and experience in places over many generations. Today, scientists are coming to recognize that Indigenous Peoples’ long-term “study” of their landscapes and ecosystems have produced valuable knowledge, as their observational time frame is not five or ten years, but generations.

Most importantly, traditional cultures produce the wisdom to ensure survival. They embrace that we are part of the Earth, and depend on it, and depend on each other and all the nations of beings that inhabit this earth. And they think towards the future, and plan accordingly.

“Indigeneity also includes a sense of stewardship and responsibility…”

Instead of more modernity, or post-modernity, we need what we might call “indigeneity.” All of our ancestors were indigenous once, somewhere. Indigeneity is a way of being in the world: being indigenous to a place means having a depth of knowledge, understanding and connection to that place. Indigeneity also includes a sense of stewardship and responsibility for managing that place and working respectfully with its non-human inhabitants. Prior to that shift away from agrarian society that took place with the Industrial Revolution, most people on this planet retained some degree of Indigeneity under this definition.

This is not a romantic notion. Romanticism was indeed a 19th-century backlash against the culture of reason, but times have changed. Instead, we need what Dan Wildcat calls “Indigenous Realism.” We have science, and it’s good, it’s strong, it’s powerful. We have technology, which can be used wisely or not. And we have traditional cultural values to tell us what wisdom is. It’s time to put these all together.

It is not “romantic” to say that we are interconnected with and part of the Earth—to use the Lakota phrase “all my relatives” in referring to the soil, the rocks, the water, the air, the plants and the animals. This is science. We are one with our environment. The boundary between our bodies and our environments is not just permeable, but a blur of movement as components from Earth, Air, Water and Fire cycle through us. We partake of, and contribute to, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric circulation, the nutrient cycle and the mineral cycle. We embody, and return to, the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. We are what we eat, drink and breath, and we share those elements with the rest of the Earth. Even our DNA tells us that we are related to all other species on the planet. The Lakota phrase “all our relatives” becomes a scientific reality when we consider this. And when we think of the world as “relatives” rather than “resources,” we will treat it differently.

“It is not ‘romantic’ to say that we are interconnected with and part of the Earth…”

Now, what does the voyaging canoe teach us about living “Rationally” in the world? Remembering that “the canoe is an island, the island is a canoe,” we can take that a step further to thinking about how to live on this Earth. I have summarized this in five values.

  • Ike (Knowledge, Sight): This is the intellectual component: the science, the experience and also the insight and wisdom as well. It’s one thing to know intellectually how to navigate, for example, and another thing to be an experienced or master navigator.
  • Po‘okela (the Pursuit of Excellence): This refers to the individual striving that makes for success, but also the technological aspect: it took guilds of craftsmen to build a voyaging canoe, and for the vessel to survive the journey, the workmanship needed to be excellent.
  • Kuleana refers your area of responsibility, but also to rights.  These two go together.  If we all look after our responsibilities, everything gets done.
  • Pono means to act in a way that is balanced, not just socially, but cosmically. It is to do the right thing in any given situation, even if that is to your personal disadvantage.
  • Mālama means “to take care of.”  Take that which is your responsibility and make it thrive and flourish.  Heal it when it needs healing.  Especially, we need to look after the vessel that carries us. Hence the name of the Hōkūleʻa’s World Wide Voyage: “Mālama Honua—take care of the Earth.”

Of course, all of this works best with aloha—compassionate, loving kindness. And this may be where the culture of individualism has its weakest link. But as with all of these values, it can be reclaimed if we accept that we are all in the same boat.

Today, with global interconnectivity and global environmental issues, of which climate change is the most important by far, the Earth is the canoe, the Earth is the island. It’s not just a metaphor. And we need to practice those five values that enabled survival on the canoe and on small islands. It’s time we replaced the value of self-interest with the values of living and working together. It’s time to promote a culture that unites science with wisdom. Otherwise, we are lost.

Knowledge should be about putting our best values into practice, NOT about giving everyone the freedom—and incentive—to pursue their own self-interest at the expense of others. If the Anthropocene tells us anything, it is that the Age of the Individual is over. We are all in the same boat, and that boat’s getting smaller, and leakier, and more full of trash. And that’s just not rational.

Plato: Philosophy Of Education

Plato, an educational thinker was born in an upper class family in Athens which was the leading city state in thought, art and government. He was interested in political career but after the death of his teacher Socrates, Plato pursued his teacher philosophy. For the purpose of education, Plato traveled to Egypt and Italy where he learnt mathematics. After returning home he established an academy to teach moral values to the elite youth of Athens to make them better leaders of society.

 

Women Education:
The early Athenian Education did not recognize the education for girls. Education was meant for only boys. Plato believed that women were equal to men and though some are physically smaller or weak in size, some women are physically equal to men therefore, those women who are physically strong should be allowed to learn the same skills that do. In his book `REPUBLIC’, Plato describes how male and female should receive the same education and be given the same duties and responsibilities in the society as given to the male member.

Relevance:
In the same manner the girl-child education is emphasized in the modern educational systems and theories. Almost all the governments in the world are trying as much as possible to ensure that the girl-child is educated since all societies currently requires the elites. This has been the case in most institutions in Kenya whereby the entrance or admission to public universities favours much the education of women to ensure that more women are capable of acquiring university education just like men. This is bearing fruits whereby in all sectors in all sectors of government, there are women who are carrying out the same duties as men, may it be in the military, the higher government offices or even in the constitution. This is to show both can carry out any duty according to their individual talents. This has helped in the development of society and state as it goes with Plato’s idea that educated individuals should serve the state. This has also assisted in reducing the dependency ratio among citizens. Therefore the idea of Plato to educate both men and women has played a great role in the development of individuals’ society and states in general. Plato suggested that ‘No man should bring children into the world that is unwilling to persevere to the end in their nature and education’. Therefore, this is to show that getting a girl child, one should be ready and willing to educate her.

 

 

Teaching Methods:
Plato recommended play method at elementary level. He said that children should learn by doing and when they reached a higher level of education they would be trained in the processes of thinking and abstracting. Plato wanted a place where children would love to go and play with things which enhance their education.

Relevance:
This is relevant to modern educational systems and practices where children at lower levels of education are taught through practical means such as counting by means of sticks, molding by use of clay and memorizing through singing. This is very important to the child as it makes learning interesting and enjoyable. Plato also recommended motivation and interest in learning. He was against the use of force in education. He said that ‘knowledge which is acquired under compulsion obtains no hold on the mind’. Therefore, he said ‘do not then train youths by force and harshness, but direct them to it by what amuses their minds so that you may better able to discover with accuracy the peculiar genius of each’.

 

Education For All:
Education is not only a right but a passport to human development. It opens doors and expands opportunities and freedoms. Plato wanted everybody to be educated to the limit regardless of their social status, gender, race, or age.

Relevance:
This is relevant to modern educational theories and practice whereby has a right to education regardless of who they are in society. This has been emphasized by the government through the introduction of free primary and secondary education to ensure that both the rich and the poor can access education. Also this has been demonstrated in modern day education especially where aged people are going to school to access education or to complete from where they had left. This has contributed greatly in promotion of social needs for national development whereby education has the responsibility of preparing children for the changes in attitudes and relationships which are necessary for the smooth process of a rapidly developing modern economy. Also education for all has contributed to the economic needs of society by producing citizens with skills, knowledge, expertise and personal qualities that are required to support the growing economy. Apart from social and economic benefit, education for all has contributed in the promotion of technological and industrial needs of society by providing learners with the necessary skills and attitudes for industrial development.

 

State Education:                                                                                                                           Plato suggested that education was supposed to be provided by the state and not private educators. Sophists were considered as educators. They were selling wisdom and in their schools they admitted only pupils who were able top pay the fees. Consequently poor families could not manage to pay the fees. Sophists moved from one town to another. This situation did not please Plato since they were not the best channels of education neither second best because they desired money and fame rather than knowledge. Plato’s attitude towards these itinerant teachers made him proposed the state to be responsible for education rather than to leave it to the private individuals as had always been the case. So, Plato proposed to have a minister for education. This was considered as the most important minister, and his office was considered the greatest one.

Relevance:
This is relevant to modern educational theories and practice whereby although there are private institutions that offer education , the state is the one that is charged with the overall responsibility of providing the curriculum and national examinations for both the public and private institutions. The state has also made sure that the poor and the rich would acquire basic education in public schools. Also there is a minister for education who oversees the implementation of education policies.
Plato’s education idea was primarily intended for those who were to be statesmen. What made him to emphasis the statesmen education was to avoid blind leaders; because these statesmen were to be given a state and if they not educated, would lead the state into a terrible situation. Therefore, Plato was convinced that education would help one know many things that he/she will be able to know what to do in his or her state in order to avoid disaster in the state. On this he said “the ruler of the state should be the one who has the peculiar abilities to fulfill that function’’. He also said that the ruler should be the one who has been fully educated, one who has come to understand the difference between the visible world and the intelligible world, between the realm of opinion and the realm of knowledge and between appearance and reality. He believed education must promote a new type of leadership for the betterment of state. Relevance This has contributed to modern educational theories and practice in that many of the leaders that we have today and those who have different tasks in the state have acquired at least basic education.

Plato also proposed that education should be carefully planned as it is universal, with the subject matte , admissible candidates, age levels, examinations and rewards being taken up as pressing considerations in state supported and state-administered schooling. Relevance This is relevant to modern educational theories and practice whereby the government provides a well planned curriculum and national examinations to both public and private schools and sponsors students who meets the requirements to be admitted in public. Also students who perform well are given various presents to encourage them to do even better.

 

 

Curriculum:
According to Plato, education was to be controlled by the state. He recommended that the curriculum forwarded by the state should initiate the subject to be taught and were to be selected carefully. He said that right action implies acting in the light of knowledge of the good. Knowledge of the good is perfection of education hence true education implies right action. The subjects taught were to be able to induce the student with the power to make the right decision resulting to taking the right action. Secondly, the subjects should not be studied in isolation, but should have some relevance to each other. This idea is echoed many times among modern educational writers as a plea for integration of the curriculum. Another idea on curriculum was about frequent testing of students. Plato argued that frequent testing of students was an appropriate measure and a proof on the progress and ability of a student. He therefore proposed that students were to be examined several times so as their educators to understand the progress and ability of their students. Lastly, Plato argued that preservation of high standard of education depends on a proper study of science. To support his argument, Plato says that, the study of science provides an individual with a more positive knowledge than that of arts.

Relevance:
Due to advancing world, subjects selection is done carefully , whereby it focuses on subjects for economic valuation of life and subjects for the aesthetic valuation of life. In Kenya, students are fully guided on the subject selection and the appropriate subject combination in secondary schools. This shows that the idea of subject selection is relevant to modern educational theories and practices. In modern world, idea on integration of subjects is stressed among modern educational writers. In Kenya, most subjects that are taught are inter-related in the sense that, a concept in one subject can be applied on another subject. A subject like physics is related to mathematics. These two subjects relates in that, physics uses some mathematical principles and formula. For example, Pythagoras theorem. Also mathematics borrows some ideas from physics. The integration of subjects have enhanced students understanding. Plato’s idea of frequent testing is very crucial and highly practical in the modern world. Students are usually given assignments and continuous assessment tests on particular topics, marking is done and the teacher is able to tell the understanding and progress of each student on these topics. Modern school curriculum lays a lot of emphasis on science subjects. This has been done by inculcating them in the school curriculum. Organizing science congress to improve students’ power of innovation and also the government is promoting science by promoting science projects. These have promoted scientific innovation all around the world hence promoting better living.